Grenzenlose Gewalt und geheime Voodoo-Rituale: Die Herrschaft des François „Papa Doc“ Duvalier gehört zu den blutigsten Kapiteln in der Geschichte Haitis. Undatierte Aufnahme des haitianischen Präsidenten und Diktators Francois Duvalier, genannt "Papa Doc"(: 19haitianischer. Nun liegt "Papa Doc" im Sterben. Nachfolger soll "Baby Doc", sein jähriger Sohn Jean-Claude, werden. Im Dezember hatte der.
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François Duvalier, auch Papa Doc genannt, war ein haitianischer Politiker und Diktator. François Duvalier, auch Papa Doc genannt, (* vermutlich April in Port-au-Prince; † April ebenda) war ein haitianischer Politiker und Diktator. Jean-Claude Duvalier folgte seinem Vater François Duvalier – genannt Papa Doc – im Alter von nur 19 Jahren im Amt des Staatsoberhauptes nach. Sein Vater. Papa Doc: Haiti and Its Dictator | Diederich, Bernard, Burt, Al | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch. Undatierte Aufnahme des haitianischen Präsidenten und Diktators Francois Duvalier, genannt "Papa Doc"(: 19haitianischer. Der Arzt Francois Duvalier - "Papa Doc" - wurde am September mit überragender Mehrheit zum Präsidenten Haitis gewählt. Vorausgegangen waren. Der haitianische Politiker „Papa Doc“ Francois Duvalier nutzte die abergläubischen Vorstellungen seiner Landsleute, um die eigene Diktatur zu stützen.
François Duvalier, auch Papa Doc genannt, (* vermutlich April in Port-au-Prince; † April ebenda) war ein haitianischer Politiker und Diktator. Nun liegt "Papa Doc" im Sterben. Nachfolger soll "Baby Doc", sein jähriger Sohn Jean-Claude, werden. Im Dezember hatte der. François Duvalier, auch Papa Doc genannt, war ein haitianischer Politiker und Diktator.
After reading the whole list, Duvalier remarked that "all were shot". Haitian communists and even suspected communists bore the brunt of the government's repression.
A new law declared that "Communist activities, no matter what their form, are hereby declared crimes against the security of the State. Duvalier employed intimidation, repression, and patronage to supplant the old mulatto elites with a new elite of his own making.
Corruption—in the form of government rake-offs of industries, bribery, extortion of domestic businesses, and stolen government funds—enriched the dictator's closest supporters.
Most of them held sufficient power to intimidate the members of the old elite, who were gradually co-opted or eliminated. Many educated professionals fled Haiti for New York City , Miami , Montreal , Paris and several French-speaking African countries, exacerbating an already serious lack of doctors and teachers.
The government confiscated peasant landholdings and allotted them to members of the militia,  who had no official salary and made their living through crime and extortion.
Malnutrition and famine became endemic. Nonetheless, Duvalier enjoyed significant support among Haiti's majority black rural population, who saw in him a champion of their claims against the historically dominant mulatto elite.
During his 14 years in power, he created a substantial black middle class, chiefly through government patronage.
Duvalier fostered his cult of personality and claimed that he was the physical embodiment of the island nation.
He also revived the traditions of Vodou , later using them to consolidate his power with his claim of being a Vodou priest, himself.
He often donned sunglasses in order to hide his eyes and talked with the strong nasal tone associated with the loa.
Duvalier also held in his closet the head of former opponent Blucher Philogenes, who tried to overthrow him in Many books have been written about the Francois Duvalier era in Haiti, the best known of which is Graham Greene 's novel The Comedians.
Greene himself was declared persona non grata and barred from entering Haiti. Alan Whicker featured Duvalier in a episode of Whicker's World , which includes an interview with the president.
The first authoritative book on the subject was Papa Doc: Haiti and its Dictator by Al Burt and Bernard Diederich , published in ,  though several others by Haitian scholars and historians have appeared since Duvalier's death in In , John Marquis wrote Papa Doc: Portrait of a Haitian Tyrant ,  which relied in part on records from a espionage trial in Haiti to detail numerous attempts on Duvalier's life.
The trial's defendant, David Knox, was a Bahamian director of information. Knox lost and was sentenced to death, but he was later granted amnesty.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. President of Haiti. Simone Duvalier. Play media. Small Axe. New York Times.
Archived from the original on 14 September In Metz, Helen Chapin ed. Dominican Republic and Haiti.
Country Studies. Research completed December 3rd ed. Washington, D. President Duvalier reigned supreme for fourteen years.
Duvalier and his henchmen killed between 30, and 60, Haitians. The victims were not only political opponents, but women, whole families, whole towns.
However, the Dominican commanders were reluctant to enter Haiti, and Bosch was obliged to turn to the [ Organization of American States ] to settle the matter.
Archived from the original on 27 June The Miracle of Music. Friends of Music Education for Haiti. Haiti: A Shattered Nation.
New York: The Overlook Press. Le Nouvelliste in French. Archived from the original on 9 November Il en fut d'autres. Sydney, Australia. Archived from the original on 10 September In Haggerty, Richard A.
Country Studies 2nd ed. Archived from the original on 18 September Retrieved 9 November The Haitian Revolution and its Effects.
Heinemann CXC history 1st ed. Oxford, England: Heinemann Educational Publishers. Pan-African Chronologies. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland.
During the s, Duvalier joined a group of black intellectuals, the Griots. The Griots had begun to study and sanctify Haiti's African heritage.
It was on this ideology that Duvalier later based his political leadership. Africa and the Americas: Culture, Politics, and History. Woronoff, Jon ed.
Historical Dictionary of Haiti. Historical Dictionaries of the Americas. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press. Archived from the original on 20 March The New York Times.
Inter-American Dialogue. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Haiti: The Duvaliers and Their Legacy 1st ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Although referred to as a militia, the VSN in fact became the Duvaliers' front-line security force. As of early , the organization included more than 9, members and an informal circle of thousands more.
The VSN acted as a political cadre, secret police and instrument of terror. It played a crucial political role for the regime, countering the influence of the armed forces, historically the government's primary source of power.
The VSN gained its deadly reputation in part because members received no salary, although they took orders from the Presidential Palace.
They made their living, instead, through extortion and petty crime. Rural members of the VSN, who wore blue denim uniforms, had received some training from the army, while the plainclothes members, identified by their trademark dark glasses, served as Haiti's criminal investigation force.
Archived from the original on 16 January This concordat let Dr. It also stipulates that future appointments should be 'preferentially to members of the indigenous clergy'.
Heads of States and Governments. Abingdon, England: Routledge. He once ordered the head of an executed rebel packed in ice and brought to the presidential palace so he could commune with his spirit.
New York: Henry Holt and Company. Peepholes were made in his torture chambers, to allow him to observe discreetly. Sometimes, he was in the room itself, while men and women were beaten, tortured, and plunged into baths of sulfuric acid.
Prague: Metafora. African American Review. Kennedy brought about the President's assassination. Archived from the original on 11 July Morning Edition.
Archived from the original on 30 November People with ties to Haiti are remembering one of that country's former dictators. The old saying goes, speak nothing but good of the dead, but that is hard for Patrick Gaspard to do.
He's a U. Duvalier returned to his former work with the American Sanitary Mission in —54 and began organizing the resistance to Magloire.
By he had become the central opposition figure and went underground. Running on a program of popular reform and black nationalism , Duvalier was elected president in September When Duvalier was stricken by a heart attack in , Barbot acted in his stead.
Upon recovery, the president promptly imprisoned his aide. His manipulation of legislative elections in to have his term extended to and other corrupt and despotic measures precipitated a termination of U.
That summer he had Barbot murdered, after the latter, on his release from prison, had attempted an insurrection. Other attempts to overthrow Duvalier were equally unsuccessful.
Late in Duvalier moved further toward an absolutist regime, promoting a cult of his person as the semidivine embodiment of Haiti.
In April he declared himself president for life. Although diplomatically almost completely isolated, excommunicated by the Vatican until for harassing the clergy, and threatened by conspiracies against him, Duvalier was able to stay in power longer than any of his predecessors.
His regime of terror quelled political dissent, causing nearly 30, deaths, but at the same time achieved for Haiti an unusual degree of political stabilization.
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Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students.Hilfsgüter wurden offiziell nicht mehr nach Haiti geschickt. Io 2019 Tonton Macoutes pferchten ihn am Rony Gilot gehörte zum Regime, auch er wurde angeklagt. Oktober mitteilte. Hilfswerk Österreich: Haiti ist The Hunger einem blauen Auge davongekommen". April in einen Kofferraum und verschleppten ihn. Oktober an. Die Einhaltung dieser Monopole Yakuza 5 auch die Steuererhebung wurde durch die Tonton Macoutes sichergestellt. Cuba answered by breaking off diplomatic relations and Duvalier subsequently instituted a campaign to rid Haiti of communists. Magloirewho National Geographic Doku subsequently elected president. The victims were not only political opponents, but women, whole families, whole towns. Papa Doc: Haiti and Its Dictator. Archived from the original on Finaleonline.De September Namespaces Article Talk.