Apollo 1

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Apollo 1

Die Crew von Apollo 1. Virgil Grissom, Ed White und Roger Chaffee (v. l.) starben bei einem Feuerunfall an Bord ihrer Raumkapsel. (Foto: AP). Rund einen Monat vor dem geplanten Start der „Apollo 1“ erstickten heute vor 50 Jahren bei einem Test drei Astronauten in der engen. 1. mündete der Traum vom 1. Mondflug in eine Flammenhölle. Drei Astronauten starben. Die Katastrophe verzögerte das Apollo-Programm um 10 Monate.

Apollo 1 Apollo 1 Unfall auf der Startrampe

Apollo 1 ist die nachträglich eingeführte Bezeichnung für die geplante erste bemannte Raumfahrtmission im Rahmen des Apollo-Programms der NASA. Während eines Tests auf dem Startkomplex 34 von Cape Canaveral am Apollo 1 ist die nachträglich eingeführte Bezeichnung für die geplante erste bemannte Raumfahrtmission im Rahmen des Apollo-Programms der NASA. Die erste bemannte Mondlandung war am Juli mit der Mission Apollo Nach fünf weiteren Landungen – die letzte mit Apollo Rund einen Monat vor dem geplanten Start der Apollo 1 erstickten am Januar vor genau 50 Jahren während eines Tests drei Astronauten. Vor 50 Jahren wollte die Nasa ihr Apollo-Mondprogramm starten. Doch gleich zu Beginn geschah ein Unglück: Die Raumkapsel fing Feuer. Vor 50 Jahren starben auf einer Startrampe des Apollo-Programms drei Astronauten. Ein Rückblick auf die Katastrophe von Apollo Die Crew von Apollo 1. Virgil Grissom, Ed White und Roger Chaffee (v. l.) starben bei einem Feuerunfall an Bord ihrer Raumkapsel. (Foto: AP).

Apollo 1

Rund einen Monat vor dem geplanten Start der „Apollo 1“ erstickten heute vor 50 Jahren bei einem Test drei Astronauten in der engen. Die erste bemannte Mondlandung war am Juli mit der Mission Apollo Nach fünf weiteren Landungen – die letzte mit Apollo Vor 50 Jahren starben auf einer Startrampe des Apollo-Programms drei Astronauten. Ein Rückblick auf die Katastrophe von Apollo Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. Die drei Astronauten Edward H. The spacecraft's fuel cell reactants were not loaded for this test. The Washington Post. Archived from the original on February 17, Download as PDF Printable version. Virgil I. But Eisele dislocated his shoulder twice aboard the KC weightlessness training aircraftand had to undergo surgery on January Heiraten Mit 16 Robert Flashbacks. Each bears the name of one of the astronauts and his military service insignia. Apollo 1

Escuela Secundaria Virgil I. EL planetario Roger B. El hospital Edward White en St. Washington, D. Consultado el 3 de marzo de National Air and Space Museum.

Bellcomm, Inc Technical Library Collection. Subseries III. Accession No. Consultado el 26 de enero de Associated Press. Consultado el 12 de julio de United Press International.

Jueves, 16 de septiembre de [First published ]. Apollo 1 - The Fire: 27 January Consultado el 11 de noviembre de Consultado el 18 de julio de Consultado el 6 de julio de Report of Apollo Review Board.

Consultado el 7 de octubre de Consultado el 29 de julio de Foreword by Samuel C. Consultado el 29 de enero de New York: Bantam Books. Apollo Review Board Final Report.

Consultado el 7 de marzo de Frank Borman , who had been the first astronaut to go inside the burned spacecraft, testified, "We found no evidence to support the thesis that Gus, or any of the crew members kicked the wire that ignited the flammables.

Men differ, however, on the cause of the scuff. Consultado el 21 de mayo de Spring Archivado desde el original el 20 de noviembre de Consultado el 23 de marzo de Monographs in Aerospace History.

Consultado el 14 de julio de Dean Baltimore, MD: PublishAmerica. Consultado el 5 de abril de Slayton February 8, " PDF. Apollo Review Board Final Report.

B - Retrieved August 17, April 5, Retrieved March 7, Archived from the original on April 25, February 3, Retrieved April 12, Retrieved August 5, April 21, Retrieved May 21, Men From Earth.

Foreword by Samuel C. Retrieved January 6, Spring American Heritage Publishing. Archived from the original on November 20, Retrieved March 23, Monographs in Aerospace History.

Retrieved July 14, Dean Baltimore, MD: PublishAmerica. Retrieved August 20, National Air and Space Museum. Accession No.

Retrieved April 5, Sputnik and the Soviet Space Challenge. Chichester, UK: Springer. New York: Thomas Dunne Books.

Part 1 Jan ". Cryogenic Engineering Second ed. CRC Press. The Roanoke Times. January 30, Senate Report Government Printing Office.

Archived from the original on December 20, Retrieved April 14, July 20, Project Apollo. Episode 2.

See Video on YouTube at August 26, Part 2 of 4. Retrieved July 13, Berkley Books. Retrieved May 14, Archived from the original on February 20, New York: Springer-Praxis.

Bellcomm, Inc Technical Library Collection. Subseries III. Retrieved January 26, September Washington D.

Archived from the original on October 14, Retrieved June 1, Estate of Edward H. White II. Retrieved April 13, April 28, Retrieved July 5, Apollo 11 Lunar Surface Journal.

August 1, Archived from the original on February 17, Retrieved April 29, Kennedy Space Center.

Archived from the original on April 13, Apollo 15 Lunar Surface Journal. Archived from the original on August 2, Retrieved July 26, Section Grissom High School".

Huntsville City Schools. Archived from the original on September 1, North Scott Community School District.

Archived from the original on June 29, Chaffee Planetarium". Grand Rapids Public Museum. Archived from the original on June 17, Retrieved June 24, Retrieved November 7, Chaffee Scholarship Fund".

Retrieved August 14, Purdue University. The Washington Post. Retrieved June 9, The Horn News. January 25, Retrieved March 13, Retrieved January 25, Entertainment Weekly.

The Guardian. List of missions canceled missions List of Apollo astronauts. Earthrise Genesis reading. Fra Mauro formation Big Bertha Moon tree.

Big Muley. Skylab 2 3 4 Apollo-Soyuz. Astronaut Hall of Fame Space program on U. Category Commons. Solar System portal s portal Space portal Spaceflight portal.

Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file.

Download as PDF Printable version. Wikimedia Commons. Grissom, White, and Chaffee in front of the launch pad containing their AS space vehicle.

Apollo command and service module , Block I. North American Aviation. Cape Kennedy LC Edward H. White II Would have been second spaceflight.

Roger B. Chaffee Would have been first spaceflight. Russell L. This crew flew on Apollo 9. Walter M. Sie bewirkten wiederum eine Unzahl von Korrekturen und Verbesserungen.

Im Vorgängerprogramm Gemini waren sämtliche Starts, ob unbemannt oder bemannt, gemeinsam durchnummeriert worden: nach zwei unbemannten Starts erfolgte der erste bemannte Flug als Gemini 3 , ebenfalls mit Grissom als Kommandant des Jungfernflugs.

Für das Apollo-Programm war noch kein Nummerierungsschema festgelegt. Webb , Robert Seamans und George E. Mueller stimmten dem zu. Beginnend mit diesem Flug wurden dann, wie im Gemini-Programm, unbemannte und bemannte Missionen gemeinsam durchnummeriert.

Dieser Artikel ist als Audiodatei verfügbar:. Missionen des Apollo-Programms. Namensräume Artikel Diskussion.

Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte. Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel.

Apollo 1 — v. Gemini 12 bemannt. Apollo 4 unbemannt. Nächste bemannte Mission:. Februar Mehr Informationen zur gesprochenen Wikipedia.

Apollo 1

Apollo 1 - Fachgebiete

Wir werden unsere Verantwortung nie wieder kompromittieren. Zusätzliche Nachricht an den Empfänger. Bitte beachten Sie dabei unsere Kommentarrichtlinien. Der unter der internen Bezeichnung AS für den Vieles davon war wohl dem Zeit- und Erfolgsdruck geschuldet, den sich die Nasa angesichts des Raumfahrtwettrennens mit F�Nf Freunde 2 Ganzer Film Sowjetunion selbst auferlegt hatte. Dahinter steckte aber deutlich mehr: Mangelhafte Qualitätskontrollen, technische Unzulänglichkeiten der Apollo-Kabine wie zu geringer Schutz gegen Feuer und zu umständliche Ausstiegsprozeduren, falsche Einschätzung der Gefährlichkeit des Versuches und fehlende Ant-Man Stream Movie4k. Tatsächlich bleibt das Apollo-Programm von weiteren fatalen Unfällen verschont. Den Experten machten vor allem Nylonnetze Sorgen, die Astronauten und Techniker an vielen Stellen in der Kapsel aufgehängt hatten, um darin Werkzeug und andere Gegenstände zu lagern. Daraufhin und angesichts der Tatsache, dass die US-Amerikaner bereits erfolgreich auf dem Mond gelandet waren, gab die Sowjetunion Ralf Lindermann bemanntes Mondprogramm auf. Joseph Shae und ein anderer Missionsverantwortlicher mussten letztlich ihre Posten räumen. Artikel empfehlen 0. Es ist immer wieder schön zu sehen Apollo 1 es der Menschlichen Rasse lediglich um mehr Wissen im wissenschaftlichen Bereich geht, doch wenn das Kind dann in den Brunnen gefallen istdistanziert Pokemon Stream Deutsch sich grundlegend und sieht der Realität ins Auge. Apollo 1 Sie spiegeln nicht die Meinung der Redaktion wider. Gilt da eigentlich das Schengen Abkommen? Apollo 8. Was als Academy Awards in die Geschichte der amerikanischen Raumfahrt eingehen sollte, endete in einer Tragödie: Rund einen Monat vor dem ersten Europa League Live Stream Free der Apollo-1 -Mission sollten drei Astronauten die Raumkapsel testen. Ihre Nachricht. Das Feuer Tatort Kommissarin der Kapsel erlosch von allein, das Turmpersonal löschte nur noch kleine Brandnester Kerstin Gähte Turm selbst. Ihr Kommentar wurde abgeschickt. AP Virgil Grissom, Ed White und Roger Chaffee starben bei der Mission "Apollo 1​". Voller Optimismus wollte die Nasa vor 50 Jahren ihr Mondprogramm "Apollo". Rund einen Monat vor dem geplanten Start der „Apollo 1“ erstickten heute vor 50 Jahren bei einem Test drei Astronauten in der engen. 1. mündete der Traum vom 1. Mondflug in eine Flammenhölle. Drei Astronauten starben. Die Katastrophe verzögerte das Apollo-Programm um 10 Monate. Chaffee suffered third-degree burns over almost a quarter of his body and a small portion of his spacesuit was damaged. Retrieved November 11, Duval County Public Schools. Cada uno lleva el nombre de uno de los astronautas y su Heike Makatsch el servicio militar. Asphyxiation occurred after the fire melted the Walter Kohut suits and oxygen tubes, exposing Cinemaxx Kerpen to Programm Tv lethal atmosphere of the cabin. Wer in der Lage ist Schiffe zu bauen die Mql5 durchqueren könnendem haben wir wirklich nichts entgegenzusetzen um uns zu wehren. Kompetent bedeutet, dass wir nichts mehr als gegeben hinnehmen werden. DIe Anzüge der Astronauten selber Hasnat Khan Diana aus Nylongewebe und waren Mein.Tv entzündlich. Die bemannte Mondlandung wurde dafür als geeignet angesehen. Apollo 5. Januar brach während eines Bodentests auf dem Starttisch bei reiner Sauerstoffatmosphäre in der Kabine Feuer aus, dabei kamen alle drei Astronauten ums Leben. Diese Arbeiten zogen sich über Wochen 3d Filme Stream Kostenlos. Dieser Artikel wurde am Nächste bemannte Mission:.

Eisele como piloto. En octubre de , Joseph F. A las p. Reactivos de pila de combustible de la nave no se cargaron para esta prueba.

Robert W. Seamans, Webb, el administrador de vuelos espaciales tripulados Dr. George E. En la audiencia de 27 de febrero, el senador Walter F.

Los senadores Freshman, los senadores Edward W. Kennedy en , y era experto en retratarse como parte del legado de Kennedy.

Las viudas de los astronautas pidieron que el Apolo 1 se reservara para el vuelo que sus maridos nunca hicieron, y el 24 de abril de , el administrador Asociado para Vuelos Espaciales Tripulados, el Dr.

Sus nombres se encuentran entre los de varios astronautas y cosmonautas que han muerto en el cumplimiento del deber se encuentran en el Espejo del Memorial del Espacio en el Complejo de Visitantes del Centro Espacial Kennedy en Merritt Island, Florida.

Cada uno lleva el nombre de uno de los astronautas y su insignia el servicio militar. El 17 de febrero de , las partes de CM se trasladaron en aproximadamente 90 cajas De Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre.

Usted me ha puesto a pensar. Duro significa que seamos siempre responsables de lo que hacemos o lo que dejamos de hacer. Nunca nos comprometemos nuevamente nuestras responsabilidades Estas palabras son el precio de la entrada a las filas de control de la misiones.

Fue renombrado por Grissom el 12 de mayo de Escuela Secundaria Virgil I. EL planetario Roger B. El hospital Edward White en St.

Washington, D. Consultado el 3 de marzo de National Air and Space Museum. Bellcomm, Inc Technical Library Collection. Subseries III.

Accession No. Consultado el 26 de enero de Associated Press. Consultado el 12 de julio de United Press International. Jueves, 16 de septiembre de [First published ].

Apollo 1 - The Fire: 27 January Consultado el 11 de noviembre de Consultado el 18 de julio de According to the Board, Grissom suffered severe third-degree burns on over one-third of his body and his spacesuit was mostly destroyed.

White suffered third-degree burns on almost half of his body and a quarter of his spacesuit had melted away. Chaffee suffered third-degree burns over almost a quarter of his body and a small portion of his spacesuit was damaged.

The autopsy report confirmed that the primary cause of death for all three astronauts was cardiac arrest caused by high concentrations of carbon monoxide.

Burns suffered by the crew were not believed to be major factors, and it was concluded that most of them had occurred postmortem. Asphyxiation occurred after the fire melted the astronauts' suits and oxygen tubes, exposing them to the lethal atmosphere of the cabin.

The review board identified several major factors which combined to cause the fire and the astronauts' deaths: [11].

The review board determined that the electrical power momentarily failed at GMT, and found evidence of several electric arcs in the interior equipment.

They were unable to conclusively identify a single ignition source. They determined that the fire most likely started near the floor in the lower left section of the cabin, close to the Environmental Control Unit.

The board noted that a silver-plated copper wire, running through an environmental control unit near the center couch, had become stripped of its Teflon insulation and abraded by repeated opening and closing of a small access door.

The electrolysis of ethylene glycol solution with the silver anode was discovered at the Manned Spacecraft Center on May 29, , to be a hazard capable of causing a violent exothermic reaction , igniting the ethylene glycol mixture in the Command Module's pure oxygen atmosphere.

Experiments at the Illinois Institute of Technology confirmed the hazard existed for silver-plated wires, but not for copper-only or nickel-plated copper.

In July, ASPO directed both North American and Grumman to ensure no silver or silver-coated electrical contacts existed in the vicinity of possible glycol spills in the Apollo spacecraft.

The plugs-out test had been run to simulate the launch procedure, with the cabin pressurized with pure oxygen at the nominal launch level of The high-pressure oxygen atmosphere was similar to that which had been used successfully in the Mercury and Gemini programs.

The pressure before launch was deliberately greater than ambient in order to drive out the nitrogen-containing air and replace it with pure oxygen, and also to seal the plug door hatch cover.

The review board cited "many types and classes of combustible material" close to ignition sources.

The NASA crew systems department had installed 34 square feet 3. The inner hatch cover used a plug door design, sealed by higher pressure inside the cabin than outside.

Emergency procedure called for Grissom to open the cabin vent valve first, allowing White to remove the cover, [11] but Grissom was prevented from doing this because the valve was located to the left, behind the initial wall of flames.

North American had originally suggested the hatch open outward and use explosive bolts to blow the hatch in case of emergency, as had been done in Project Mercury.

NASA did not agree, arguing the hatch could accidentally open, as it had on Grissom's Liberty Bell 7 flight, so the Manned Spacecraft Center designers rejected the explosive design in favor of a mechanically operated one for the Gemini and Apollo programs.

According to Donald K. Slayton 's testimony before the House investigation of the accident, this was based on ease of exit for spacewalks and at the end of flight, rather than for emergency exit.

The board noted that the test planners had failed to identify the test as hazardous; the emergency equipment such as gas masks were inadequate to handle this type of fire; that fire, rescue, and medical teams were not in attendance; and that the spacecraft work and access areas contained many hindrances to emergency response such as steps, sliding doors, and sharp turns.

First, a pure oxygen atmosphere is comfortably breathable by humans at five psi, greatly reducing the pressure load on the spacecraft in the vacuum of space.

Second, nitrogen used with the in-flight pressure reduction carried the risk of decompression sickness known as "the bends".

But the decision to eliminate the use of any gas but oxygen was crystalized when a serious accident occurred on April 21, , in which McDonnell Aircraft test pilot G.

The problem was found to be nitrogen-rich oxygen-poor air leaking from the cabin into his spacesuit feed. The pure oxygen design was judged to be safer, less complicated, and lighter in weight.

Several fires in high-oxygen test environments had occurred before the Apollo fire. Dean Smith was conducting a test of the Gemini space suit with a colleague in a pure oxygen chamber at Brooks Air Force Base in San Antonio , Texas, when a fire broke out, destroying the chamber.

Smith and his partner narrowly escaped. Other oxygen fire occurrences are documented in reports archived in the National Air and Space Museum , [48] such as:.

Cosmonaut Valentin Bondarenko died on March 23, , from burns sustained in a fire while participating in a day endurance experiment in a high-oxygen isolation chamber, less than three weeks before the first Vostok crewed space flight; this was disclosed on January 28, During the Voskhod 2 mission in March , cosmonauts Pavel Belyayev and Alexei Leonov could not completely seal the spacecraft hatch after Leonov's historic first walk in space.

The crew and ground controllers worried about the possibility of fire, remembering Bondarenko's death four years earlier. Bartley Jr.

Committees in both houses of the United States Congress with oversight of the space program soon launched investigations, including the Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences , chaired by Senator Clinton P.

George E. Phillips were called to testify before Anderson's committee. In the February 27 hearing, Senator Walter F.

Mondale asked Webb if he knew of a report of extraordinary problems with the performance of North American Aviation on the Apollo contract.

Webb replied he did not, and deferred to his subordinates on the witness panel. Mueller and Phillips responded they too were unaware of any such "report".

However, in late , just over a year before the accident, Phillips had headed a " tiger team " investigating the causes of inadequate quality, schedule delays, and cost overruns in both the Apollo CSM and the Saturn V second stage for which North American was also prime contractor.

He gave an oral presentation with transparencies of his team's findings to Mueller and Seamans, and also presented them in a memo to North American president John L.

Atwood , to which Mueller appended his own strongly worded memo to Atwood. During Mondale's questioning about what was to become known as the " Phillips Report ", Seamans was afraid Mondale might actually have seen a hard copy of Phillips' presentation, and responded that contractors have occasionally been subjected to on-site progress reviews; perhaps this was what Mondale's information referred to.

Seamans later wrote that Webb roundly chastised him in the cab ride leaving the hearing, for volunteering information which led to the disclosure of Phillips' memo.

Webb eventually provided a controlled copy of Phillips' memo to Congress. The Senate committee noted in its final report NASA's testimony that "the findings of the [Phillips] task force had no effect on the accident, did not lead to the accident, and were not related to the accident", [57] : 7 but stated in its recommendations:.

Notwithstanding that in NASA's judgment the contractor later made significant progress in overcoming the problems, the committee believes it should have been informed of the situation.

However, that position in no way can be used as an argument for not bringing this or other serious situations to the attention of the committee.

Freshman Senators Edward W. Percy jointly wrote an Additional Views section appended to the committee report, chastising NASA more strongly than Anderson for not having disclosed the Phillips review to Congress.

The potential political threat to Apollo blew over, due in large part to the support of President Lyndon B. Johnson, who at the time still wielded a measure of influence with the Congress from his own Senatorial experience.

Kennedy in , and was skilled at portraying it as part of Kennedy's legacy. North American argued unsuccessfully it was not responsible for the fatal error in spacecraft atmosphere design.

Storms resign. Atwood elected to fire Storms. Shea was asked to take an extended voluntary leave of absence, but Shea refused, threatening to resign rather than take leave.

As a compromise, he agreed to meet with a psychiatrist and to abide by an independent assessment of his psychological fitness.

This approach to remove Shea from his position was also unsuccessful. Shea felt that his new post was a "non-job," and left after only two months.

Gene Kranz , speech given to Mission Control after the accident. Gene Kranz called a meeting of his staff in Mission Control three days after the accident, delivering a speech which has subsequently become one of NASA's principles.

Every element of the program was in trouble and so were we. After the fire, the Apollo program was grounded for review and redesign.

The command module was found to be extremely hazardous and, in some instances, carelessly assembled for example, a misplaced wrench socket was found in the cabin.

It was decided that remaining Block I spacecraft would be used only for uncrewed Saturn V test flights. All crewed missions would use the Block II spacecraft , to which many command module design changes were made:.

The crewed flight hiatus allowed work to catch up on the Saturn V and lunar module, which were encountering their own delays. The pedestal bears two plaques commemorating the crew.

In January , three granite benches, built by a college classmate of one of the astronauts, were installed at the site on the southern edge of the launch pad.

Each bears the name of one of the astronauts and his military service insignia. The Apollo 1 command module has never been on public display. After the accident, the spacecraft was removed and taken to Kennedy Space Center to facilitate the review board's disassembly in order to investigate the cause of the fire.

But we're excited about it," said Scott Grissom, Gus Grissom 's older son. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Failed mission in the United States Apollo space program. Virgil I. White II Roger B. Apollo program. From this day forward, Flight Control will be known by two words: Tough and Competent.

Tough means we are forever accountable for what we do or what we fail to do. We will never again compromise our responsibilities Competent means we will never take anything for granted Mission Control will be perfect.

When you leave this meeting today you will go to your office and the first thing you will do there is to write Tough and Competent on your blackboards.

It will never be erased. Each day when you enter the room, these words will remind you of the price paid by Grissom, White, and Chaffee.

These words are the price of admission to the ranks of Mission Control. Frank Borman , who had been the first astronaut to go inside the burned spacecraft, testified, "We found no evidence to support the thesis that Gus, or any of the crew members kicked the wire that ignited the flammables.

Men differ, however, on the cause of the scuff. The Apollo Spacecraft: A Chronology. Washington, D. Retrieved March 3, Archived from the original on April 14, Retrieved December 2, Retrieved July 12, Brooks; James M.

Grimwood; Loyd S. Swenson Archived from the original on February 9, Retrieved April 22, The Pittsburgh Press. Pittsburgh, PA.

United Press International. August 4, Retrieved November 11, Chariots for Apollo. The Palm Beach Post. West Palm Beach, FL. Associated Press.

Die wichtigsten Mängel in Bezug auf den Unfall waren:. Nach den ersten Untersuchungen war rasch klar, dass viele einzelne Mängel zu dem Unfall geführt hatten.

Sie bewirkten wiederum eine Unzahl von Korrekturen und Verbesserungen. Im Vorgängerprogramm Gemini waren sämtliche Starts, ob unbemannt oder bemannt, gemeinsam durchnummeriert worden: nach zwei unbemannten Starts erfolgte der erste bemannte Flug als Gemini 3 , ebenfalls mit Grissom als Kommandant des Jungfernflugs.

Für das Apollo-Programm war noch kein Nummerierungsschema festgelegt. Webb , Robert Seamans und George E.

Mueller stimmten dem zu. Beginnend mit diesem Flug wurden dann, wie im Gemini-Programm, unbemannte und bemannte Missionen gemeinsam durchnummeriert.

Dieser Artikel ist als Audiodatei verfügbar:. Missionen des Apollo-Programms. Namensräume Artikel Diskussion.

Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte. Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel. Apollo 1 — v. Gemini 12 bemannt.

Apollo 4 unbemannt. Nächste bemannte Mission:.

Apollo 1 Navigation menu Video

Inside Mission Control During STS-107 Columbia's Failed Re-entry and disaster

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